- 96 V2G projects, comprising 6,100 chargers are either underway or have been completed in 22 countries worldwide.
- V2G allows the users and utilities to pull energy from the car battery when energy systems are more strained, thus balancing variations in energy production and consumption.
- Despite several products in the market, V2G projects are still in pilot phase, mostly ranging from a proof-of-concept trial to small-scale commercial trials.
- Unavailability of EV models and impact on EV battery are among major inhibitors for V2G adoption
V1G – Smart Charging via Load Management
V2G- Vehicle-to-Grid Charging Fundamentals
The technology is suitable to be deployed as either on-board AC charging or off-board DC charging. For on-board V2G charging, expensive electronic modifications in vehicles for bi-directional charging are required along with dedicated AC chargers capable of bi-directional power transfer. The Utrecht region of the Netherlands started a region-wide bi-directional AC charging pilot phase in 2019 with more than 400 chargers already been installed. The entire region could be powered for a whole night by just 8,500 bi-directional cars, however, the only vehicle currently capable of bi-directional AC charging is the Renault Zoe. With the use of off-board DC chargers, the deployment of V2G is simple but expensive with over 20 EVSE manufacturers globally providing such chargers. In the implementation of this charging solution, the V2G charging hardware is in the charging station and only minor modifications are required at the vehicle end. Currently, the DC chargers capable of bi-directional charging offer CHAdeMO connectors only, limiting the utility of these chargers. The industry expects the release of ISO 15118 standard for CCS connectors by the end of 2022 which will boost the adoption of this technology.
Off-board V2G charging is the preferred choice due to its high efficiency, easy deployment, low noise level and faster charging. Furthermore, the application of V2G charging is most suitable for home, apartment, workplace, and fleet operations, where the vehicles are usually parked for longer duration. Owing to these characteristic applications, the optimal power of these chargers is less than 30 kW. The existing market of these chargers is negligible, with only 6,000 chargers installed globally. However, Power Technology Research views this technology as an emerging trend over the next decade as the energy demand from electric vehicles grows to overburden the grid.
Hurdles in V2G Deployment
V2G projects are still in pilot phase, mostly ranging from a proof-of-concept trial to small-scale commercial trials, offering several key energy services. The chart below shows service offerings by different projects and the countries in which these are undertaken.
EV Charging Infrastructure Service Overview
The research presented in this article is from PTR's EV Charging Infrastructure service. For information about this service please submit a request shown below.
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